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dc.contributor.editorTurriziani Colonna, Federicaen_US
dc.creatorCohmer, Seanen_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-19T22:31:46Z
dc.date.available2014-08-19T22:31:46Z
dc.date.created2014-08-19en_US
dc.date.issued2014-08-19
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10776/8149
dc.description.abstractIn 1943, child psychiatrist Leo Kanner in the US gave the first account of Early Infantile Autism that encouraged psychiatrists to investigate what they called emotionally cold mothers, or refrigerator mothers. In 1949, Kanner published Problems of Nosology and Psychodynamics of Early Infantile Autism. In that article, Kanner described autistic children as reared in emotional refrigerators. US child psychiatrists claimed that some psychological or behavioral conditions might have origins in emotional or mental stress, meaning that they might be psychogenic. Kanner described autism's cause in terms of emotional refrigeration from parents into the early 1960s, often attributing autism to the lack of parental warmth. In the 1960s, Bernard Rimland in the US and Bruno Bettelheim in Austria disagreed on the role of psychogenesis in autism. Rimland suggested that autism's cause was rooted in neurological development, while Bettelheim continued to emphasize the role of nurturing during early childhood. Nevertheless, many mothers reported that they felt a deep sense of anguish and resentment toward child psychiatrists who often made them feel as if they were to blame for their children's autism.en_US
dc.format.mediumtext/xhtmlen_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherArizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofEmbryo Project Encyclopediaen_US
dc.rightsCopyright Arizona Board of Regentsen_US
dc.subjectContexten_US
dc.subject.lcshKanner, Leo, 1894-1981en_US
dc.subject.lcshAutismen_US
dc.subject.lcshAutism spectrum disordersen_US
dc.subject.lcshAutism in childrenen_US
dc.subject.lcshAutistic childrenen_US
dc.subject.lcshEarly infantile autismen_US
dc.subject.lcshKanner syndromeen_US
dc.subject.lcshRimland, Bernard, 1928-2006en_US
dc.subject.lcshMeyer, Adolfen_US
dc.subject.lcshChild psychiatryen_US
dc.subject.lcshBettelheim, Brunoen_US
dc.subject.lcshNational Society for Autistic Children (U.S.)en_US
dc.titleEarly Infantile Autism and the Refrigerator Mother Theory (1943-1970)en_US
dc.typeTexten_US
dc.rights.licenseLicensed as Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/en_US
dc.subject.embryoDisordersen_US
dc.subject.embryoTheoriesen_US
dc.subject.tagrefrigerator motheren_US
dc.description.typeArticlesen_US


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