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dc.contributor.editorDrago, Maryen_US
dc.creatorBaranski, Marcien_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-01-28T22:08:19Z
dc.date.available2014-01-28T22:08:19Z
dc.date.created2014-01-28en_US
dc.date.issued2014-01-28
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10776/7514
dc.description.abstractIn the early twentieth century, scientists and agriculturalists collected plants in greenhouses, botanical gardens, and fields. Seed collection efforts in the twentieth century coincided with the professionalization of plant breeding. When scientists became concerned over the loss of plant genetic diversity due to the expansion of a few agricultural crops around mid-century, countries and organizations created seed banks for long-term seed storage. Around 1979, environmental groups began to object to what they perceived as limited access to seed banks, and they questioned the ownership of the intellectual property of living organisms. Controversy also ensued over the uneven flow of genetic resources because many of the seed banks were located in the global North, yet plants were collected largely from countries in the global South. The environmental groups' campaigns, which some called the seed wars, and the movement for biodiversity conservation intersected in ways that shaped debates about plant genetic material and seed banking. Several significant shifts in governance occurred in 1994 that led to the creation of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute in Italy, and to changes in the governance of several international seed banks.en_US
dc.format.mediumtext/xhtmlen_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherArizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofEmbryo Project Encyclopediaen_US
dc.rightsCopyright Arizona Board of Regentsen_US
dc.subjectContexten_US
dc.subject.lcshGermplasm resources, Planten_US
dc.subject.lcshGermplasm resources, Plant--Storageen_US
dc.subject.lcshAgrobiodiversityen_US
dc.subject.lcshMooney, P. R. (Patrick R.), 1947-en_US
dc.subject.lcshCrops
dc.subject.lcshBiodiversity
dc.subject.lcshBiodiversity conservation
dc.subject.lcshInternational Board for Plant Genetic Resources
dc.subject.lcshInternational Plant Genetic Resources Institute
dc.subject.lcshGermplasm resources, Plant--Storage--In vitro
dc.subject.lcshPlant breeding
dc.subject.lcshGermplasm resources--Cryopreservation
dc.subject.lcshFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Crop Ecology and Genetic Resources Unit
dc.subject.lcshBennett, Erna, 1925-2012
dc.subject.lcshGenetic Resources Action International
dc.subject.lcshSwaminathan, M. S. (Monkombu Sambasivan)
dc.subject.lcshIntellectual property
dc.subject.meshSeedsen_US
dc.titleSeed Banking 1979-1994en_US
dc.typeTexten_US
dc.rights.licenseLicensed as Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/en_US
dc.subject.embryoOrganizationsen_US
dc.subject.tagplant genetic resourcesen_US
dc.subject.tagseed banken_US
dc.subject.taggermplasm storageen_US
dc.description.typeArticlesen_US


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