Recent Submissions

  • Estrogen 

    Van Iten, Brendan
    The figure depicts three different molecular structures of estrogen found in mammals’ that differ by the arrangement of bonds and side groups. The molecular structures of the three estrogen molecules differ by the arrangement ...
  • Jelly Fish and Green Fluorescent Protein 

    Guerrero, Anna
    The crystal jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, produces and emits light, called bioluminescence. Its DNA codes for sequence of 238 amino acids that forms a protein called Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). FP is folded so that a ...
  • Mitochondria 

    Guerrero, Anna
    Mitochondria are organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are composed of an outer membrane and an inner membrane. The outer membrane faces the cellular cytoplasm, while the inner membrane folds back on ...
  • Southern Gastric Brooding Frog 

    Guerrero, Anna
    The Southern Gastric Brooding Frog (Rheobotrahcus silus) was a frog species that lived in Australia. It was declared extinct in 2002. Once adult males fertilized the eggs of females, the females swallowed their eggs. The ...
  • DNA and X and Y Chromosomes 

    Guerrero, Anna
    Y-chromosomes exist in the body cells of many kinds of male animals. Found in the nucleus of most living animal cells, the X and Y-chromosomes are condensed structures made of DNA wrapped around proteins called histones. ...
  • Chloroplasts 

    Guerrero, Anna
    Chloroplasts are the organelles in plant and algal cells that conduct photosynthesis. A single chloroplast has an outer membrane and an inner membrane, with an intermembrane space in between. Within the inner membrane, ...
  • Neurospora crassa Life Cycle 

    Pribadi, Amy (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2016-10-12)
    This diagram shows the life cycle of Neurospora crassa, a mold that grows on bread. N. crassa can reproduce through an asexual cycle or a sexual cycle. The asexual cycle (colored as a purple circle), begins in this figure ...
  • Beadle's One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis 

    Pribadi, Amy (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2016-10-12)
    Between 1934 and 1945, George Beadle developed a hypothesis that each gene within the chromosomes of organisms each produced one enzyme. Enzymes are types of proteins that can catalyze reactions inside cells, and the figure ...
  • Beadle and Tatum's 1941 Experiments with Neurospora Revealed that Genes Produce Enzymes 

    Pribadi, Amy (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2016-10-12)
    This illustration shows George Beadle and Edward Tatum's experiments with Neurospora crassa that indicated that single genes produce single enzymes. The pair conducted the experiments at Stanford University in Palo Alto, ...
  • Neurospora crassa 

    Pribadi, Amy (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2016-10-11)
    Neurospora crassa is a red mold that scientists use to study genetics. N. crassa commonly grows on bread as shown in the top left corner of this figure. To culture the mold in lab, researchers grow it in glassware such as ...
  • Beadle and Ephrussi Show that Something Besides Eye Tissue Determines Eye Color in Fruit Flies 

    Pribadi, Amy (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2016-10-11)
    In the 1930s, George Beadle and Boris Ephrussi discovered factors that affect eye colors in developing fruit flies. They did so while working at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. (1) They took ...
  • Beadle and Ephrussi’s Technique to Transplant Optic Discs between Fruit Fly Larvae 

    Pribadi, Amy (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2016-10-11)
    In 1935, George Beadle and Boris Ephrussi developed a technique to transplant optic discs between fruit fly larvae. They developed it while at the California Institute of Technology in Pasedena, California. Optic discs are ...
  • Fruit Fly Life Cycle 

    Pribadi, Amy (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2016-10-11)
    Fruit flies of the species Drosophila melanogaster develop from eggs to adults in eight to ten days at 25 degrees Celsius. They develop through four primary stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. When in the wild, female ...
  • The Development of the Neural Crest and the Migration of Neural Crest Cells (NCCs) in the Embryos of Various Vertebrates 

    Hall, Brian K.; Barnes, M. Elizabeth (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-08-21)
    This diagram shows how NCCs migrate differently in rats, birds and amphibians. The arrows represent both chronology of NCCs migration and the differential paths that NCCs follow in different classes of animals. The solid ...
  • Some of the Cells that Arise from Animal Gastrulas with Three Germ Layers 

    Michaels, Chinami (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-08-21)
    From a developing embryos three primary germ layers, ectoderm (green), mesoderm (pink) and endoderm (yellow), a variety of differentiated cell types and organ systems arise, far more than are shown here. The three primary ...
  • Mechanism of Notch Signaling 

    Lancaster, Cheryl (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-08-21)
    Mechanism of Notch Signaling: The image depicts a type of cell signaling, in which two animal cells interact and transmit a molecular signal from one to the other. The process results in the production of proteins, which ...
  • A Fate Map of the Chick Embryo 

    Michaels, Chinami (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia.Arizona Board of Regents, 2014-02-26)
    A 3-D fate map of the chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo with the prospective point of ingression and yolk. The area where the primitive streak will form during gastrulation is shown. The anterior- posterior axis is shown by ...
  • The Blastoderm in Chicks During Early Gastrulation 

    Michaels, Chinami (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia.Arizona Board of Regents, 2014-02-26)
    This image shows a chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo undergoing gastrulation in stage four (18-19 hrs after laying) according to the Hamburger-Hamilton staging series. At this point in time the chicken embryo is a blastoderm ...
  • The Process of Gastrulation in Frog Embryos 

    Michaels, Chinami (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-12-13)
    Illustration of the movement of the three hemispheres of cells, the animal cap (dark green) the marginal zone (lime green) and the ventral cap (yellow) during frog gastrulation. The external view column (images a.1-a.6) ...
  • Frog Embryo in the Blastula Stage 

    Michaels, Chinami (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-12-13)
    Illustration of the animal-vegetal gradient in Xenopus laevis ( African clawed frog) eggs after fertilization. During fertilization, the sperm s point of entry determines the future dorsal side (shaded) and ventral side ...

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