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dc.creatorKing, Jesseen_US
dc.date.accessioned2013-03-18T23:34:14Z
dc.date.available2013-03-18T23:34:14Z
dc.date.created2012-11-08en_US
dc.date.issued2013-03-18
dc.identifier.otherembryo:128917en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10776/4202
dc.description.abstractDuring the Vietnamese War between 1961 and 1971 the United States armed forces engaged in a massive defoliation and crop destruction campaign named Operation Ranch Hand. Agent Orange, an herbicide so named because of the orange color of its storage barrels, was the most heavily used herbicide of the campaign. In addition to military personnel from Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the United States, an estimated 4.8 million Vietnamese civilians were exposed to herbicides during the war. In the years following the war reports of increased rates of birth defects in the offspring of United States military personnel, Vietnamese soldiers, and civilians prompted several studies to explore the connection between Agent Orange exposure and birth defects. Studies performed over three decades by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Australian government, and Vietnamese researchers obtained mixed results. Several of these studies found increased rates of neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly. However, despite large sample sizes in many of these studies, the inherently low incidence of birth defects resulted in weak statistical correlations with Agent Orange exposure. Furthermore, the publication of statistically significant, yet potentially biased findings by Vietnamese research agencies definitively linking Agent Orange exposure and birth defects has fueled global scientific debate.en_US
dc.format.mediumtext/xhtmlen_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherArizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofEmbryo Project Encyclopediaen_US
dc.rightsCopyright Arizona Board of Regentsen_US
dc.subjectConcepten_US
dc.subject.lcshAgent Orangeen_US
dc.subject.lcshVietnam War, 1961-1975
dc.subject.lcshAgent Orange
dc.subject.lcshTetrachlorodibenzodioxin
dc.subject.lcshFetal development
dc.subject.lcshBirth defects
dc.subject.lcshFetus
dc.subject.lcshFetus--Abnormalities
dc.subject.lcshpregnancy
dc.subject.lcshTeratology
dc.subject.lcshEmbryos
dc.subject.lcshNeural tube--Abnormalities
dc.subject.lcshSpina bifida
dc.subject.lcshHydrocephalus in infants
dc.subject.meshCongenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities--Congenital Abnormalitiesen_US
dc.titleBirth Defects Caused by Agent Orangeen_US
dc.typeTexten_US
dc.rights.licenseLicensed as Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)en_US
dc.subject.embryoDisordersen_US
dc.subject.embryoReproductionen_US
dc.subject.tagBirth and developmental defectsen_US
dc.description.typeArticlesen_US
dc.date.createdstandard2012-11-08en_US


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