45 CFR 46: Protection of Human Subjects under United States Law (1974)
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In the United States, the Code of Federal Regulations Title 45: Public Welfare, part 46 (45 CFR 46) provides protection for human subjects in research carried out or supported by most federal departments and agencies. 45 CFR 46 created a common federal policy for the protection of such human subjects that was accepted by the Office of Science and Technology Policy and issued by each of the departments and agencies listed in the document. The code is divided into four subparts: basic protection applicable to all human research subjects; additional protections for women, human fetuses, and neonates; additional protections for prisoners; and additional protections for children. Although 45 CFR 46 contains additional protections for human fetuses, it is important to note that these protections last only from implantation to birth, and are not extended to embryos before implantation.