"The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" (1952), by Alan M. Turing
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In 1952 the article "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" by the British mathematician and logician Alan M. Turing was published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. In that article Turing describes a mathematical model of the growing embryo. He uses this model to show how embryos develop patterns and structures (e.g., coat patterns and limbs, respectively). Turing's mathematical approach became fundamental for explaining the developmental process of embryos. In the 1970s, for instance, scientists Alfred Gierer and Hans Meinhardt used Turing's model to work out how the patterns on seashells develop.