Molecular Epigenetics and Development: Histone Conformations, DNA Methylation and Genomic Imprinting
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Introduced by Conrad Hal Waddington in 1942, the concept of epigenetics gave scientists a new paradigm of thought concerning embryonic development, and since then has been widely applied, for instance to inheritable diseases, molecular technologies, and indeed the human genome as a whole. A genome contains an embedded intricate coding template that provides a means of genetic expression from the initial steps of embryonic development until the death of the organism. Within the genome there are two prominent components: coding (exons) and non-coding (introns) sequences. Exons provide coding by transcribing a gene into a protein, while introns do not have this capacity. On top of these coding sequences lie mechanisms that dictate the overall capability of a gene without changing the underlying nucleotide sequence of DNA; these mechanisms are primarily known as epigenetic factors.