"Experiments on the Development of Chick and Duck Embryos, Cultivated in vitro" (1932), by Conrad Hal Waddington
Navis, Adam R.
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Conrad Hal Waddington's "Experiments on the Development of Chick and Duck Embryos, Cultivated in vitro," published in 1932 in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, compares the differences in the development of birds and amphibians. Previous experiments focused on the self differentiation of individual tissues in birds, but Waddington wanted to study induction in greater detail. The limit to these studies had been the amount of time an embryo could be successfully cultivated ex vivo. Waddington applied in vitro cell culturing techniques to this experiment, as opposed to the chorio-allantoic technique used in many earlier studies. Culturing in vitro consisted of placing the embryo on a clot of adult chicken blood plasma and chick embryo extract in a watch glass. Experiments reported in this paper were divided into three main sections: the development of the embryos in vitro, induction by the endoderm, and induction by the primitive streak.