Hans Spemann (1869-1941)
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Hans Spemann was an experimental embryologist best known for his transplantation studies and as the originator of the "organizer" concept. One of his earliest experiments involved constricting the blastomeres of a fertilized salamander egg with a noose of fine baby hair, resulting in a partially double embryo with two heads and one tail. Spemann continued changing variables such as the amount of time the embryo was constricted and the degree of constriction, all of which added more empirical evidence to Hans Driesch's studies showing that embryonic cells could self-regulate to varying degrees. Spemann's long list of "simple" experiments and significant findings were mainly carried out at his laboratory, the Spemann School at the University of Freiburg, Germany, where numerous graduate students collaborated with Spemann to investigate embryonic induction.