Now showing items 1-20 of 85

    • 1901 Arizona Comstock Law 

      Malladi, Lakshmeeramya
      In 1901, the Arizona Territorial Legislature codified territorial law that illegalized advertising, causing, or performing abortions anywhere in Arizona. The 1901 code, in conjunction with the federal Comstock Act, regulated ...
    • A. Z. v. B. Z. (2000) 

      Chapman, Jennifer E. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-11-01)
      In A.Z. v. B.Z. (2000), the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts in Boston, Massachusetts, affirmed a lower courtÕs decision, ruling that contracts that require a party to become a parent against his or her will are ...
    • Abortion 

      Raup, Christina (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-08)
      Abortion is the removal of the embryo or fetus from the womb, before birth can occur-either naturally or by induced labor. Prenatal development occurs in three stages: the zygote, or fertilized egg; the embryo, from ...
    • Ann Trow (Madame Restell) (1812–1878) 

      Horwitz, Rainey
      Self-proclaimed female physician Ann Trow was a women’s reproductive health specialist as well as an abortion provider in New York City, New York during the mid 1800s. Though she had no formal medical training or background, ...
    • Anthony Comstock (1844–1915) 

      Malladi, Lakshmeeramya
      Anthony Comstock was a US postal inspector and politician who advocated for the suppression of obscenity and vice throughout the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Comstock considered any sexually explicit ...
    • Barry Morris Goldwater (1909–1998) 

      Nunez-Eddy, Claudia
      Barry Morris Goldwater was a Republican Arizona Senator and US presidential candidate in the twentieth-century whose policies supported the women's reproductive rights movement. Goldwater, a businessman and Air Force ...
    • Beal v. Doe (1977) 

      Nunez-Eddy, Claudia
      In the case of Beal v. Doe, tried in 1977, the US Supreme Court ruled that states could constitutionally restrict money from Medicaid from funding elective abortions. After the 1973 case Roe v. Wade, in which the US Supreme ...
    • Bellotti v. Baird (1979) 

      Higginbotham, Victoria
      On 2 July 1979, the United States Supreme Court decided Bellotti v. Baird, ruling that a Massachusetts law that prohibited minors from obtaining abortions without parental consent was unconstitutional. That law prohibited ...
    • Bernard Nathanson (1926-2011) 

      Zhang, Mark (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-05-03)
      Bernard Nathanson was an obstetrician and gynecologist in New York City, New York, who argued for, and later against, women's rights to abortion. Between 1970 and 1979, Nathanson oversaw at least 75,000 abortions, 5,000 ...
    • Betty Friedan (1921–2006) 

      Abdi-Moradi, Sepehr
      Betty Friedan advocated for the advancement of women's rights in the twentieth century in the United States. In 1963, Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique, which historians consider a major contribution to the feminist ...
    • Carol Downer (1933– ) 

      Horwitz, Rainey
      Carol Downer was a reproductive health and abortion rights activist in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the US and other countries. During the late 1960s, many women reported knowing little about female anatomy ...
    • Casti Connubii (1930), by Pope Pius XI 

      Brind'Amour, Katherine (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      "Casti Connubii," a papal encyclical given by Pope Pius XI on 31 December 1930, served primarily as a reaffirmation and expansion of the issues discussed in Arcanum, an encyclical written by Pope Leo XIII. It was released ...
    • City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health (1983) 

      Jackson, Lawton L.; Malladi, Lakshmeeramya
      In the 1983 case City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health the US Supreme Court ruled that certain requirements of the city of Akron’s “Regulation on Abortion” ordinance violated women’s rights to abortions. ...
    • Clinica Para Madres (1934-1950) 

      Nunez-Eddy, Claudia
      The Clinica Para Madres (Mother’s Clinic) opened in Tucson, Arizona, in December of 1934 as the first birth control clinic in Arizona. After moving to Tucson, birth control activist Margaret Sanger, along with a group of ...
    • Commonwealth v. Luceba Parker [Brief] (1845) 

      Heathcotte, Brock (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      The Court settled the question left open from the case of Commonwealth v. Bangs that it must be proved a woman was "quick with child" in order for abortion prohibitions to have any effect in Massachusetts.
    • The Comstock Law (1873) 

      Seward, Sheraden (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      The Comstock Law was a controversial law because it limited the reproductive rights of women and violated every person's right to privacy. This federal law was the beginning of a long fight over the reproductive rights ...
    • "Declaration on Procured Abortion" (1974), by the Vatican 

      Brind'Amour, Katherine (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      As various societies around the world began legalizing abortive procedures or liberalizing government stances on abortion, the Roman Catholic Church's leaders felt the need to respond to these changes by clarifying the ...
    • The Development of Mifepristone for Use in Medication Abortions 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      In the 1980s, researchers at the pharmaceutical company Roussel-Uclaf in Paris, France, helped develop a biological compound called mifepristone. When a woman takes it, mifepristone interferes with the function of hormones ...
    • Doe v. Bolton (1973) 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      In the 1973 court case Doe v. Bolton, the US Supreme Court in Washington, D.C., ruled that a Georgia law regulating abortion was unconstitutional. The Georgia abortion law required women seeking abortions to get approval ...
    • Eclipse of Reason (1987) 

      Abdi-Moradi, Sepehr
      Eclipse of Reason is a 1987 anti-abortion documentary film directed, filmed, and narrated by Bernard Nathanson, an obstetrician in the US. American Portrait Films released the film in 1987 featuring Nathanson’s commentary ...