Now showing items 1-19 of 19

    • "Congenital Club Foot in the Human Fetus" (1980), by Ernesto Ippolito and Ignacio Ponseti 

      Gandee, Katherine
      In 1980, Ernesto Ippolito and Ignacio Ponseti published their results on a histological study they performed on congenital club foot in human fetuses. The researchers examined the feet of four aborted fetuses and compared ...
    • Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1993) 

      Abboud, Alexis
      In its 1993 decision Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the US Supreme Court established the Daubert Standard for evaluating the admissibility of scientific knowledge as evidence in US federal courts. When it ...
    • Environment and Birth Defects (1973), by James G. Wilson 

      Aston, S. Alexandra (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-06-22)
      Environment and Birth Defects by James Graves Wilson in the US was published in 1973. The book summarized information on the causes of malformations in newborns and aimed to acquaint policy makers with Wilson's suggestions ...
    • "Experimental Studies on Congenital Malformations" (1959), by James G. Wilson 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa
      The article Experimental Studies on Congenital Malformations was published in the Journal of Chronic Diseases in 1959. The author, James G. Wilson, studied embryos and birth defects at the University of Florida Medical ...
    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) 

      O'Neil, Erica (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-01-30)
      The concept Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) refers to a set of birth defects that occur in children born to mothers who abused alcohol during pregnancy. The alcohol-induced defects include pre- and post-natal growth deficiencies, ...
    • Fortunio Liceti (1577–1657) 

      Guerrero, Anna
      Fortunio Liceti studied natural philosophy and medicine in Italy during the first half of the seventeenth century. Liceti wrote greater than seventy works on a wide range of topics, including the human soul, reproduction, ...
    • Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1805-1861) 

      Potestas, Jesse
      Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire studied anatomy and congenital abnormalities in humans and other animals in nineteenth century France. Under the tutelage of his father, Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore compiled and ...
    • Isotretinoin (Accutane) as a Teratogen 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-07-20)
      Isotretinoin is a molecule and a byproduct (metabolite) of vitamin A, and in greater than normal amounts in pregnant women, it can cause fetal abnormalities including cleft lips, ear and eye defects, and mental retardation. ...
    • James G. Wilson's Six Principles of Teratology 

      Aston, S. Alexandra (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-05-23)
      James Graves Wilson's six principles of teratology, published in 1959, guide research on teratogenic agents and their effects on developing organisms. Wilson's six principles were inspired by Gabriel Madeleine Camille ...
    • Josef Warkany (1902–1992) 

      Zietal, Bianca; Tantibanchachai, Chanapa
      Josef Warkany studied the environmental causes of birth defects in the United States in the twentieth century. Warkany was one of the first researchers to show that factors in the environment could cause birth defects, and ...
    • De Monstruorum Causis, Natura et Differentiis (On the Reasons, Nature and Differences of Monsters) (1616), by Fortunio Liceti 

      Guerrero, Anna
      In 1616 in Padua, Italy, Fortunio Liceti, a professor of natural philosophy and medicine, wrote and published the first edition of De Monstruorum Causis, Natura et Differentiis (On the Reasons, Nature, and Differences of ...
    • Plowman v. Fort Madison Community Hospital (2017) 

      Higginbotham, Victoria
      In June 2017, the Iowa Supreme Court decided the case Plowman v. Fort Madison Community Hospital, or Plowman v. FMCH, and ruled that women who gave birth to children with severe disabilities could sue for wrongful birth ...
    • Retinoids As Teratogens 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-02-28)
      Vitamin A (retinol) is an essential vitamin in the daily functioning of human beings that helps regulate cellular differentiation of epithelial tissue. Studies have shown that an excess of vitamin A can affect embryonic ...
    • Sidney Q. Cohlan (1915-1999) 

      Zietal, Bianca; Tantibanchachai, Chanapa
      Sidney Q. Cohlan studied birth defects in the US during the twentieth century. Cohlan helped to discover that if a pregnant woman ate too much vitamin A her fetus faced a higher than normal risk of teratogenic effects, ...
    • Studies of Thalidomide's Effects on Rodent Embryos from 1962-2008 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa; Yang, Joanna (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-03-10)
      Thalidomide is a sedative drug introduced to European markets on 1 October 1957 after extensive testing on rodent embryos to ensure its safety. Early laboratory tests in rodent populations showed that pregnant rodents could ...
    • Teratogens 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-01-22)
      Teratogens are substances that may produce physical or functional defects in the human embryo or fetus after the pregnant woman is exposed to the substance. Alcohol and cocaine are examples of such substances. Exposure to ...
    • Truman William Brophy (1848–1928) 

      Kersten, Jillian Renee
      Truman William Brophy developed a cleft palate surgical repair, later called the Brophy Operation, in the late nineteenth century US. The procedure improved facial aesthetics and speech in cleft palate patients. A cleft ...
    • Twice Born–Stories from the Special Delivery Unit (2015), by the Public Broadcasting Service and Trailblazer Studios 

      Pollesche, Jessica
      In 2015, the Public Broadcasting Service, or PBS, released a three-part documentary series, Twice Born–Stories from the Special Delivery Unit, hereafter Twice Born, that follows several pregnant women and their experiences ...
    • Virginia Apgar (1909-1974) 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      Virginia Apgar worked as an obstetrical anesthesiologist, administering drugs that reduce women’s pain during childbirth, in the US in the mid-twentieth century. In 1953, Apgar created a scoring system using five easily ...