Now showing items 1-20 of 23

    • Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome 

      Drago, Mary (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-06-05)
      Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is a human disorder in which an individual's genetic sex (genotype) differs from that individual's observable secondary sex characteristics (phenotypes). A fetus with AIS is genetically ...
    • "Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact" (1943), by Leo Kanner 

      Cohmer, Sean (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-05-23)
      Leo Kanner published Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact in 1943 in the journal Nervous Child. This article described the cases of eleven children with autism. Kanner described the behavior and upbringing of each ...
    • Bernard Rimland (1928-2006) 

      Cohmer, Sean (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-05-03)
      Bernard Rimland studied autism in children in the United States in the second half of the twentieth century. His early research in the 1950s and into the 1960s led him to assert that infantile autism was a neurodevelopmental ...
    • Carl Richard Moore (1892-1955) 

      Drago, Mary (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-02-18)
      Carl Richard Moore was a professor and researcher at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois who studied sex hormones in animals from 1916 until his death in 1955. Moore focused on the role of hormones on sex ...
    • Cocaine as a Teratogen 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa; Zhang, Mark (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-10-17)
      Cocaine use by pregnant women has a variety of effects on the embryo and fetus, ranging from various gastro-intestinal and cardiac defects to tissue death from insufficient blood supply. Thus, cocaine has been termed a ...
    • Environment and Birth Defects (1973), by James G. Wilson 

      Aston, S. Alexandra (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-06-22)
      Environment and Birth Defects by James Graves Wilson in the US was published in 1973. The book summarized information on the causes of malformations in newborns and aimed to acquaint policy makers with Wilson's suggestions ...
    • Ernst Haeckel's Biogenetic Law (1866) 

      Barnes, M. Elizabeth (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-05-03)
      The biogenetic law is a theory of development and evolution proposed by Ernst Haeckel in Germany in the 1860s. It is one of several recapitulation theories, which posit that the stages of development for an animal embryo ...
    • "Experimental Studies on Congenital Malformations" (1959), by James G. Wilson 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa
      The article Experimental Studies on Congenital Malformations was published in the Journal of Chronic Diseases in 1959. The author, James G. Wilson, studied embryos and birth defects at the University of Florida Medical ...
    • Ferguson v. City of Charleston (2001) 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-11-26)
      The US Supreme Court case Ferguson v. City of Charleston (2001) established that public hospitals couldn't legally drug test pregnant women without their consent when those women sought prenatal care at those hospitals. ...
    • Frank Rattray Lillie's Study of Freemartins (1914-1920) 

      Drago, Mary (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-03-14)
      Frank Rattray Lillie's research on freemartins from 1914 to 1920 in the US led to the theory that hormones partly caused for sex differentiation in mammals. Although sometimes applied to sheep, goats, and pigs, the term ...
    • George W. Beadle's One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis 

      Chhetri, Divyash (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-05-23)
      The one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, proposed by George Wells Beadle in the US in 1941, is the theory that each gene directly produces a single enzyme, which consequently affects an individual step in a metabolic pathway. ...
    • George Wells Beadle (1903-1989) 

      Chhetri, Divyash (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-03-14)
      George Wells Beadle studied corn, fruit flies, and funguses in the US during the twentieth century. These studies helped Beadle earn the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Beadle shared the prize with Edward Tatum ...
    • Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior (1964), by Bernard Rimland 

      Cohmer, Sean (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-05-23)
      Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior (hereafter Infantile Autism) is a book written by Bernard Rimland, published in 1964. The book proposed a theory to explain the causes of ...
    • Isotretinoin (Accutane) as a Teratogen 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-07-20)
      Isotretinoin is a molecule and a byproduct (metabolite) of vitamin A, and in greater than normal amounts in pregnant women, it can cause fetal abnormalities including cleft lips, ear and eye defects, and mental retardation. ...
    • James G. Wilson's Six Principles of Teratology 

      Aston, S. Alexandra (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-05-23)
      James Graves Wilson's six principles of teratology, published in 1959, guide research on teratogenic agents and their effects on developing organisms. Wilson's six principles were inspired by Gabriel Madeleine Camille ...
    • Josef Warkany (1902–1992) 

      Zietal, Bianca; Tantibanchachai, Chanapa
      Josef Warkany studied the environmental causes of birth defects in the United States in the twentieth century. Warkany was one of the first researchers to show that factors in the environment could cause birth defects, and ...
    • Leo Kanner (1894-1981) 

      Cohmer, Sean (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-04-30)
      Leo Kanner studied and described early infantile autism in humans in the US during the twentieth century. Though Eugen Bleuler first coined the term autism in 1910 as a symptom of schizophrenia, Kanner helped define autism ...
    • Retinoids As Teratogens 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-02-28)
      Vitamin A (retinol) is an essential vitamin in the daily functioning of human beings that helps regulate cellular differentiation of epithelial tissue. Studies have shown that an excess of vitamin A can affect embryonic ...
    • Sidney Q. Cohlan (1915-1999) 

      Zietal, Bianca; Tantibanchachai, Chanapa
      Sidney Q. Cohlan studied birth defects in the US during the twentieth century. Cohlan helped to discover that if a pregnant woman ate too much vitamin A her fetus faced a higher than normal risk of teratogenic effects, ...
    • Studies of Thalidomide's Effects on Rodent Embryos from 1962-2008 

      Tantibanchachai, Chanapa; Yang, Joanna (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-03-10)
      Thalidomide is a sedative drug introduced to European markets on 1 October 1957 after extensive testing on rodent embryos to ensure its safety. Early laboratory tests in rodent populations showed that pregnant rodents could ...