Now showing items 1-18 of 18

    • Apoptosis in Embryonic Development 

      Bartlett, Zane
      Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a mechanism in embryonic development that occurs naturally in organisms. Apoptosis is a different process from cell necrosis, which is uncontrolled cell death usually after infection ...
    • Carol Widney Greider (1961-) 

      Bartlett, Zane (2015-01-26)
      Carol Widney Greider studied telomeres and telomerase in the US at the turn of the twenty-first century. She worked primarily at the University of California, Berkeley in Berkeley, California. She received the Nobel Prize ...
    • Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak's Telomere and Telomerase Experiments (1982-1989) 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2015-03-24)
      Experiments conducted by Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider, and Jack Szostak from 1982 to 1989 provided theories of how the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres, and the enzyme that repairs telomeres, called telomerase, ...
    • The Hayflick Limit 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-11-14)
      The Hayflick Limit is a concept that helps to explain the mechanisms behind cellular aging. The concept states that a normal human cell can only replicate and divide forty to sixty times before it cannot divide anymore, ...
    • "Human Factor IX Transgenic Sheep Produced by Transfer of Nuclei from Transfected Fetal Fibroblasts" (1997), by Angelika E. Schnieke, et al. 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-08-19)
      In the 1990s, researchers working at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, performed cloning experiments in collaboration with PPL Therapeutics in Roslin, Scotland, on human coagulation factor IX, a protein. The ...
    • Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (1991- ) 

      Taddeo, Sarah (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-10-30)
      In 1991, the United Kingdom established the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) as a response to technologies that used human embryos. The HFEA is a regulatory power of the Health and Social Services Department ...
    • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Experiments by Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka in 2006 and 2007 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2015-06-02)
      In 2006, Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka reprogrammed mice fibroblast cells, which can produce only other fibroblast cells, to become pluripotent stem cells, which have the capacity to produce many different types ...
    • Intraspecies Chimeras Produced in Laboratory Settings (1960-1975) 

      Taddeo, Sarah (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-11-25)
      When cells-but not DNA-from two or more genetically distinct individuals combine to form a new individual, the result is called a chimera. Though chimeras occasionally occur in nature, scientists have produced chimeras in ...
    • Keith Henry Stockman Campbell (1954-2012) 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-06-27)
      Keith Henry Stockman Campbell studied embryo growth and cell differentiation during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the UK. In 1995, Campbell and his scientific team used cells grown and differentiated in a ...
    • Leonard Hayflick (1928- ) 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-07-20)
      Leonard Hayflick studied the processes by which cells age during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the United States. In 1961 at the Wistar Institute in the US, Hayflick researched a phenomenon later called the ...
    • "The Limited In Vitro Lifetime of Human Diploid Cell Strains" (1964), by Leonard Hayflick 

      Bartlett, Zane
      Leonard Hayflick in the US during the early 1960s showed that normal populations of embryonic cells divide a finite number of times. He published his results as 'The Limited In Vitro Lifetime of Human Diploid Cell Strains' ...
    • Paternal Sperm Telomere Elongation and Its Impact on Offspring Fitness 

      Bartlett, Zane; Yang, Joanna
      Telomeres are structures at the ends of DNA strands that get longer in the DNA of sperm cells as males age. That phenomenon is different for most other types of cells, for which telomeres get shorter as organisms age. In ...
    • The Roslin Institute (1993- ) 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-09-29)
      The Roslin Institute was established in 1993 in the village of Roslin, Scotland, as an independent research center by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), and as of 2014 is part of the ...
    • "Sheep Cloned by Nuclear Transfer from a Cultured Cell Line" (1996), by Keith Campbell, Jim McWhir, William Ritchie, and Ian Wilmut 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-09-19)
      In 1995 and 1996, researchers at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, cloned mammals for the first time. Keith Campbell, Jim McWhir, William Ritchie, and Ian Wilmut cloned two sheep, Megan and Morag, using sheep ...
    • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Mammals (1938-2013) 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-11-04)
      In the second half of the twentieth century, scientists learned how to clone organisms in some species of mammals. Scientists have applied somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone human and mammalian embryos as a means ...
    • Telomerase in Human Development 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2015-03-23)
      Telomerase is an enzyme that regulates the lengths of telomeres in the cells of many organisms, and in humans it begins to function int the early stages of embryonic development. Telomeres are repetitive sequences of DNA ...
    • Telomeres and Telomerase in Cellular Aging (Senescence) 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2015-02-11)
      Telomeres are sequences of DNA on the ends of chromosomes that protect chromosomes from sticking to each other or tangling, which could cause irregularities in normal DNA functions. As cells replicate, telomeres shorten ...
    • "Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells" (1997), by Ian Wilmut et al. 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-10-10)
      In the 1990s, Ian Wilmut, Jim McWhir, and Keith Campbell performed experiments while working at the Roslin Institute in Roslin, Scotland. Wilmut, McWhir, and Campbell collaborated with Angelica Schnieke and Alex J. Kind ...