Now showing items 1-20 of 26

    • Adib Jatene (1929–2014) 

      Caudle, Daniella
      Adib Jatene in Brazil was the first surgeon to successfully perform the arterial switch operation in 1975. The operation corrected a heart condition in infants called transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Left untreated, ...
    • The Apgar Score (1953-1958) 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      In 1952 Virginia Apgar, a physician at the Sloane Women’s Hospital in New York City, New York, created the Apgar score as a method of evaluating newborn infants’ health to determine if they required medical intervention. ...
    • Berthold Karl Hölldobler (1936– ) 

      Dhein, Kelle
      Berthold Karl Hölldobler studied social insects like ants in Europe and the US during the twentieth and early twenty-first century. He focused on the social behavior of ants, the evolutionary origins of social insects, and ...
    • Better Babies Contests in the United States (1908–1916) 

      Gerais, Reem
      Better babies contests were competitions held in state fairs throughout the US during the early twentieth century in which babies between the ages of 6 and 48 months were judged for their health. In 1908, social activist ...
    • Camillo Golgi (1843–1926) 

      Mishqat, Isra
      Camillo Golgi studied the central nervous system during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Italy, and he developed a staining technique to visualize brain cells. Called the black reaction, Golgi’s staining ...
    • Christian Peeters and Bert Hölldobler's Experiments on Reproduction in Indian Jumping Ants (1991–1994) 

      Dhein, Kelle
      Between 1991 and 1994, Christian Peeters and Bert Hölldobler studied the reproductive behaviors of the Indian jumping ant (Harpegnathos saltator), a species native to southern India. They conducted experiments as part of ...
    • The Development of Mifepristone for Use in Medication Abortions 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      In the 1980s, researchers at the pharmaceutical company Roussel-Uclaf in Paris, France, helped develop a biological compound called mifepristone. When a woman takes it, mifepristone interferes with the function of hormones ...
    • Doe v. Bolton (1973) 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      In the 1973 court case Doe v. Bolton, the US Supreme Court in Washington, D.C., ruled that a Georgia law regulating abortion was unconstitutional. The Georgia abortion law required women seeking abortions to get approval ...
    • Edgar Allen and Edward A. Doisy's Extraction of Estrogen from Ovarian Follicles, (1923) 

      Van Iten, Brendan
      In the early 1920s, researchers Edgar Allen and Edward Adelbert Doisy conducted an experiment that demonstrated that ovarian follicles, which produce eggs in mammals, also contain and produce what they called the primary ...
    • “Elective Induction of Labor” (1955), by Edward Bishop 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      In 1955, obstetrician Edward Bishop, a physician specializing in childbirth, published the article “Elective Induction of Labor,” in which he proposed the best conditions for pregnant women to elect to induce, or begin, ...
    • "The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?" (1965), by Austin Bradford Hill 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      In 1965, Austin Bradford Hill published the article “The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?” in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. In the article, Hill describes nine criteria to determine ...
    • Evaluation of the Newborn Infant--Second Report (1958), by Virginia Apgar et al. 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      Virginia Apgar and colleagues wrote “Evaluation of the Newborn Infant—Second Report” in 1958. This article explained that Apgar’s system for evaluating infants’ condition after birth accurately predicted the health of ...
    • Gene Transfer Strategy Used to Treat Tay - Sachs Disease (2005), by Sabata Martino’s Research Group 

      Nardi, Tiffany
      In the early 2000s, Sabata Martino and a team of researchers in Italy and Germany showed that they could reduce the symptoms of Tay-Sachs in afflicted mice by injecting them with a virus that infected their cells with a ...
    • George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883–1962) 

      Ciardullo, Patsy
      George Nicholas Papanicolaou developed the Pap test in the United States during the twentieth century. The Pap test is a diagnostic procedure used to test for cervical cancer in women. Papanicolaou’s work helped improve ...
    • Harald zur Hausen's Experiments on Human Papillomavirus Causing Cervical Cancer (1976–1987) 

      Kim, Grace
      From 1977 to 1987, Harald zur Hausen led a team of researchers across several institutions in Germany to investigate whether the human papillomavirus (HPV) caused cervical cancer. Zur Hausen's first experiment tested the ...
    • Karl Oskar Illmensee (1939–) 

      Lancaster, Cheryl
      Karl Oskar Illmensee studied the cloning and reproduction of fruit flies, mice, and humans in the US and Europe during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Illmensee used nuclear transfer techniques (cloning) to create ...
    • Maurice Ralph Hilleman (1919–2005) 

      Ross, Christian H.
      Maurice Ralph Hilleman developed vaccines at the Merck Institute of Therapeutic Research in West Point, Pennsylvania, during the twentieth century. Over the course of his career at Merck, Hilleman created over forty vaccines, ...
    • The Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine 

      Ross, Christian H.
      The measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine was created by Maurice Hilleman in 1971 at the Merck Institute of Therapeutic Research, a pharmaceutical company in West Point, Pennsylvania. It combined three separate vaccines ...
    • “Pelvic Scoring for Elective Induction” (1964), by Edward Bishop 

      Abboud, Carolina J.
      In the 1964 article, “Pelvic Scoring for Elective Induction,” obstetrician Edward Bishop describes his method to determine whether a doctor should induce labor, or artificially start the birthing process, in a pregnant ...