Now showing items 828-847 of 1030

    • Robert Guthrie (1916–1995) 

      Zhu, Meilin
      Robert Guthrie developed a method to test infants for phenylketonuria (PKU) in the United States during the twentieth century. PKU is an inherited condition that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build to toxic ...
    • Robert Lanza (1956- ) 

      Rojas, Christopher (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2015-02-12)
      During the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Robert Paul Lanza studied embryonic stem cells, tissues, and endangered species as chief scientific officer of Advanced Cell Technology, Incorporated in Worcester, ...
    • Robert William Briggs (1911-1983) 

      Navis, Adam R. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      Robert William Briggs was a prolific developmental biologist. However, he is most identified with the first successful cloning of a frog by nuclear transplantation. His later studies focused on the problem of how genes ...
    • Roberto Caldeyro-Barcia (1921–1996) 

      Mandile, Olivia
      Roberto Caldeyro-Barcia studied fetal health in Uruguay during the second half of the twentieth century. Caldeyro-Barcia developed Montevideo units, which are used to quantify intrauterine pressure, or the force of ...
    • Rock-Menkin Experiments 

      Ruffenach, Stephen (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      Dr. John Rock, a doctor of obstetrics and gynecology in Boston, and Miriam Menkin, Rock s hired lab technician, were the first researchers to fertilize a human egg outside of a human body in February of 1944. Their work ...
    • Roe v. Wade (1973) 

      Nunez-Eddy, Claudia; Seward, Sharaden
      In the 1973 case of Roe v. Wade, the US Supreme Court ruled that laws banning abortion violated the US Constitution. The Texas abortion laws, articles 1191–1194, and 1196 of the Texas penal code, made abortion illegal and ...
    • Roger Sperry’s Split Brain Experiments (1959–1968) 

      Lienhard, Dina A.
      In the 1950s and 1960s, Roger Sperry performed experiments on cats, monkeys, and humans to study functional differences between the two hemispheres of the brain in the United States. To do so he studied the corpus callosum, ...
    • Roger Wolcott Sperry (1913–1994) 

      Lienhard, Dina A.
      Roger Wolcott Sperry studied the function of the nervous system in the US during the twentieth century. He studied split-brain patterns in cats and humans that result from separating the two hemispheres of the ...
    • "The Role of Maternal Mitochondria during Oogenesis, Fertilization and Embryogenesis" (2002), by James M. Cummins 

      Haskett, Dorothy R. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-09-19)
      James M Cummins published 'The Role of Maternal Mitochondria during Oogenesis, Fertilization and Embryogenesis' 30 January 2002 in Reproductive BioMedicine Online. In the article, Cummins examines the role of the energy ...
    • Role of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in Alcohol-Induced Craniofacial Abnormalities 

      O'Neil, Erica (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-25)
      Prenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) results in a continuum of physical and neurological developmental abnormalities that vary depending on the timing, duration, and degree of alcohol exposure. Heavy exposure during ...
    • The Role of the Notch Signaling Pathway in Myogenesis 

      Wolter, Justin M. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-07-26)
      Among other functions, the Notch signaling pathway forestalls the process of myogenesis in animals. The Notch signaling pathway is a pathway in animals by which two adjacent cells within an organism use a protein named ...
    • The Role of the Notch signaling pathway in Somitogenesis 

      Wolter, Justin M. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-03-23)
      Among other functions, the Notch signaling pathway contributes to the development of somites in animals. It involves a cell signaling mechanism with a wide range of functions, including cellular differentiation, and the ...
    • Roman Catholic Church Quickening 

      Brind'Amour, Katherine (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      Although the concept of quickening was not developed initially by the Roman Catholic Church, much of their histories are intertwined. Quickening, the point at which a pregnant woman can first feel the movements of the ...
    • Roman v. Roman (2006) 

      Chapman, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Mark (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-05-23)
      In the case Randy M. Roman v. Augusta N. Roman (2006), the Court of Appeals of Texas followed courts in other states and upheld the validity and enforceability of in vitro fertilization (IVF) consent agreements. The Romans, ...
    • Rosalind Elsie Franklin (1920-1958) 

      O'Connell, Lindsey (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-11-17)
      Rosalind Elsie Franklin worked with X-ray crystallography at King's College London, UK, and she helped determine the helical structure of DNA in the early 1950s. Franklin's research helped establish molecular genetics, a ...
    • Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921-2011) 

      Craer, Jennifer R. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-09-10)
      Rosalyn Sussman Yalow co-developed the radioimmunoassay (RIA), a method used to measure minute biological compounds that cause immune systems to produce antibodies. Yalow and research partner Solomon A. Berson developed ...
    • The Roslin Institute (1993- ) 

      Bartlett, Zane (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-09-29)
      The Roslin Institute was established in 1993 in the village of Roslin, Scotland, as an independent research center by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), and as of 2014 is part of the ...
    • Ross Granville Harrison (1870-1959) 

      Buettner, Kimberly A. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      A pioneer in experimental embryology, Ross Granville Harrison made numerous discoveries that advanced biology. One of the most significant was his adaptation of the hanging drop method from bacteriology to carry out the ...
    • Roy Chapman Andrews (1884-1960) 

      Madison, Paige (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2015-01-22)
      Roy Chapman Andrews traveled the world studying fossils, from mammals to dinosaurs, during the first half of the twentieth century. Andrews worked and collected fossil specimens for the American Museum of Natural History ...
    • Roy John Britten (1919-2012) 

      Mishra, Abhinav (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-10-24)
      Roy John Britten studied DNA sequences in the US in the second half of the twentieth century, and he helped discover repetitive elements in DNA sequences. Additionally, Britten helped propose models and concepts of gene ...