Now showing items 827-846 of 1036

    • Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909-2012) 

      Navis, Adam R. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-08)
      Rita Levi-Montalcini is a Nobel Laureate recognized for her work in the discovery and characterization of nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes the growth and maintenance of the nervous system in a ...
    • "RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering via Cas 9" (2013), by Prashant Mali, Luhan Yang, Kevin M. Esvelt, John Aach, Marc Guell, James E. DiCarlo, Julie E. Norville, and George M. Church 

      Zhu, Meilin
      In 2013, George Church and his colleagues at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts published RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering via Cas 9, in which they detailed their use of RNA-guided Cas 9 to genetically modify ...
    • Robert Alan Good (1922-2003) 

      Lopez, Angel (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-25)
      Robert Alan Good was an American physician and scientific researcher who explored the cellular mechanisms of immunity. His research and discoveries earned him the label of "father of modern immunology." Though his work in ...
    • Robert Geoffrey Edwards (1925-2013) 

      Philbrick, Samuel (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      Robert Geoffrey Edwards worked with Patrick Christopher Steptoe to develop in-vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques during the 1960s and 1970s in the United Kingdom. Louise Brown, the world' s first "test-tube baby," was ...
    • Robert Geoffrey Edwards and Patrick Christopher Steptoe's Clinical Research in Human in vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, 1969-1980 

      Jiang, Lijing (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-25)
      The biomedical accomplishment of human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) took years to become the successful technique that presently enables infertile couples to have their own children. In 1969, more ...
    • Robert Geoffrey Edwards's Study of Fertilization of Human Oocytes Matured in vitro, 1965 to 1969 

      Jiang, Lijing (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      Robert Geoffrey Edwards, a British developmental biologist at University of Cambridge, began exploring human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a way to treat infertility in 1960. After successfully overcoming the problem of ...
    • Robert Geoffrey Edwards's Study of in vitro Mammalian Oocyte Maturation, 1960 to 1965 

      Jiang, Lijing (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-08-18)
      In a series of experiments between 1960 and 1965, Robert Geoffrey Edwards discovered how to make mammalian egg cells, or oocytes, mature outside of a female's body. Edwards, working at several research institutions in the ...
    • Robert Guthrie (1916–1995) 

      Zhu, Meilin
      Robert Guthrie developed a method to test infants for phenylketonuria (PKU) in the United States during the twentieth century. PKU is an inherited condition that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build to toxic ...
    • Robert Lanza (1956- ) 

      Rojas, Christopher (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2015-02-12)
      During the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Robert Paul Lanza studied embryonic stem cells, tissues, and endangered species as chief scientific officer of Advanced Cell Technology, Incorporated in Worcester, ...
    • Robert William Briggs (1911-1983) 

      Navis, Adam R. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      Robert William Briggs was a prolific developmental biologist. However, he is most identified with the first successful cloning of a frog by nuclear transplantation. His later studies focused on the problem of how genes ...
    • Roberto Caldeyro-Barcia (1921–1996) 

      Mandile, Olivia
      Roberto Caldeyro-Barcia studied fetal health in Uruguay during the second half of the twentieth century. Caldeyro-Barcia developed Montevideo units, which are used to quantify intrauterine pressure, or the force of ...
    • Rock-Menkin Experiments 

      Ruffenach, Stephen (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      Dr. John Rock, a doctor of obstetrics and gynecology in Boston, and Miriam Menkin, Rock s hired lab technician, were the first researchers to fertilize a human egg outside of a human body in February of 1944. Their work ...
    • Roe v. Wade (1973) 

      Nunez-Eddy, Claudia; Seward, Sharaden
      In the 1973 case of Roe v. Wade, the US Supreme Court ruled that laws banning abortion violated the US Constitution. The Texas abortion laws, articles 1191–1194, and 1196 of the Texas penal code, made abortion illegal and ...
    • Roger Sperry’s Split Brain Experiments (1959–1968) 

      Lienhard, Dina A.
      In the 1950s and 1960s, Roger Sperry performed experiments on cats, monkeys, and humans to study functional differences between the two hemispheres of the brain in the United States. To do so he studied the corpus callosum, ...
    • Roger Wolcott Sperry (1913–1994) 

      Lienhard, Dina A.
      Roger Wolcott Sperry studied the function of the nervous system in the US during the twentieth century. He studied split-brain patterns in cats and humans that result from separating the two hemispheres of the ...
    • "The Role of Maternal Mitochondria during Oogenesis, Fertilization and Embryogenesis" (2002), by James M. Cummins 

      Haskett, Dorothy R. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-09-19)
      James M Cummins published 'The Role of Maternal Mitochondria during Oogenesis, Fertilization and Embryogenesis' 30 January 2002 in Reproductive BioMedicine Online. In the article, Cummins examines the role of the energy ...
    • Role of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in Alcohol-Induced Craniofacial Abnormalities 

      O'Neil, Erica (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-25)
      Prenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) results in a continuum of physical and neurological developmental abnormalities that vary depending on the timing, duration, and degree of alcohol exposure. Heavy exposure during ...
    • The Role of the Notch Signaling Pathway in Myogenesis 

      Wolter, Justin M. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-07-26)
      Among other functions, the Notch signaling pathway forestalls the process of myogenesis in animals. The Notch signaling pathway is a pathway in animals by which two adjacent cells within an organism use a protein named ...
    • The Role of the Notch signaling pathway in Somitogenesis 

      Wolter, Justin M. (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-03-23)
      Among other functions, the Notch signaling pathway contributes to the development of somites in animals. It involves a cell signaling mechanism with a wide range of functions, including cellular differentiation, and the ...
    • Roman Catholic Church Quickening 

      Brind'Amour, Katherine (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
      Although the concept of quickening was not developed initially by the Roman Catholic Church, much of their histories are intertwined. Quickening, the point at which a pregnant woman can first feel the movements of the ...