“The History of Twins, As a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture” (1875), by Francis Galton
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In the article “The History of Twins, As a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture,” Francis Galton describes his study of twins. Published in 1875 in Fraser’s Magazine in London, England, the article lays out Galton’s use of twins to examine and distinguish between the characteristics people have at birth and the characteristics they receive from the circumstances of life and experience. Galton calls those factors nature and nurture. Based on his study, Galton concluded that nature has a larger effect than nurture on development. By studying twins, Galton introduced a way to examine the effects of nature and nurture in people who were born with similar traits, which allowed him to focus on the effects of experience on a person’s development.