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Endoscopic fetoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure performed during pregnancy that allows physicians to view the fetus in-utero. Physicians use endoscopic fetoscopy to evaluate, diagnose, and treat fetal abnormalities. Physicians use an endoscope, or a thin, flexible surgical device with a light attached to its end, to perform endoscopic fetoscopy procedures. In 1954, Björn Westin performed the first endoscopic fetoscopy in Sweden. Since Westin’s initial development of the procedure, interest in endoscopic fetoscopy has grown throughout the early part of the twenty-first century. In addition, the use of endoscopy has expanded beyond fetal medicine and has been introduced to other fields of medicine such as general surgery. Endoscopic fetoscopy allows surgeons to diagnose and correct fetal abnormalities that would otherwise result in fetal death before delivery or in lifelong impairment if treatment were delayed until after delivery.