Josef Warkany (1902–1992)
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Josef Warkany studied the environmental causes of birth defects in the United States in the twentieth century. Warkany was one of the first researchers to show that factors in the environment could cause birth defects, and he helped to develop guidelines for the field of teratology, the study of birth defects. Prior to Warkany’s work, scientists struggled to explain if or how environmental agents could cause birth defects. Warkany demonstrated that a deficiency or excess of vitamin A in maternal nutrition could cause birth defects. He also established that mercury in teething powders increased infant mortality rates. Warkany showed how substances outside the human body could adversely affect conception, growth, and development of the human fetus in utero.