Robert Guthrie (1916–1995)
Robert Guthrie developed a method to test infants for phenylketonuria (PKU) in the United States during the twentieth century. PKU is an inherited condition that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build to toxic levels in the blood. Untreated, PKU causes mental disabilities. Before Guthrie’s test, physicians rarely tested infants for PKU and struggled to diagnosis it. Guthrie’s test enabled newborns to be quickly and cheaply screened at birth and then treated for PKU if necessary, preventing irreversible neurological damage. After developing the test, Guthrie traveled the world to advocate for mass screening for PKU in newborns. Along with his PKU test, Guthrie developed newborn screens for maple syrup urine disease and for galactosemia. Guthrie’s test for PKU and campaign for newborn screening led to the early diagnoses of PKU in thousands of infants, preventing those infants from developing mental disabilities.