Now showing items 1-20 of 166

  • ABO Blood Type Identification and Forensic Science (1900-1960) 

    Harbison, Corey
    The use of blood in forensic analysis is a method for identifying individuals suspected of committing some kinds of crimes. Paul Uhlenhuth and Karl Landsteiner, two scientists working separately in Germany in the early ...
  • Abortion 

    Raup, Christina (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-08)
    Abortion is the removal of the embryo or fetus from the womb, before birth can occur-either naturally or by induced labor. Prenatal development occurs in three stages: the zygote, or fertilized egg; the embryo, from ...
  • Agent Orange as a Cause of Spina Bifida 

    Chou, Cecilia
    Spina bifida is a birth defect that affects the spines of developing fetuses and infants, and research in the 20th century indicated that chemicals in the herbicide Agent Orange likely lead to the birth defect. People with ...
  • Agent Orange Birth Defects 

    King, Jesse; Chou, Cecilia
    Sprayed extensively by the US military in Vietnam, Agent Orange contained a dioxin contaminant later found to be toxic to humans. Despite reports by Vietnamese citizens and Vietnam War veterans of increased rates of ...
  • Amniocentesis 

    Brind'Amour, Katherine (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
    Amniocentesis is a test used for prenatal diagnosis of inherited diseases, Rh incompatibility, neural tube defects, and lung maturity. Normally performed during the second trimester of a pregnancy, this invasive procedure ...
  • Amniocentesis Prior to 1980 

    Kelley, Kristin (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
    The extraembryonic membranes that surround and originate from the embryos of vertebrates such as birds, reptiles, and mammals are crucial to their development. They are integral to increasing the surface area of the uterus, ...
  • Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome 

    Drago, Mary (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-06-05)
    Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is a human disorder in which an individual's genetic sex (genotype) differs from that individual's observable secondary sex characteristics (phenotypes). A fetus with AIS is genetically ...
  • Anencephaly 

    King, Jesse (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-03-18)
    Anencephaly is an open neural tube defect, meaning that part of the neural tube does not properly close or that it has reopened during early embryogenesis. An embryo with anencephaly develops without the top of the skull, ...
  • Angelman Syndrome 

    North, Jonathan (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2014-08-13)
    Angelman syndrome is a disorder in humans that causes neurological symptoms such as lack of speech, jerky movements, and insomnia. A human cell has two copies of twenty-three chromosomes for a total of forty-six-one copy ...
  • The Apgar Score (1953-1958) 

    Abboud, Carolina J.
    In 1952 Virginia Apgar, a physician at the Sloane Women’s Hospital in New York City, New York, created the Apgar score as a method of evaluating newborn infants’ health to determine if they required medical intervention. ...
  • Apoptosis in Embryonic Development 

    Bartlett, Zane
    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a mechanism in embryonic development that occurs naturally in organisms. Apoptosis is a different process from cell necrosis, which is uncontrolled cell death usually after infection ...
  • The Aschheim-Zondek Test for Pregnancy 

    Kelley, Kristin (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
    Throughout history many different methods have been devised for the early detection of pregnancy. From the time of the Ancient Egyptians, inspection of the urine has been a popular place to start. However, it was not until ...
  • Better Babies Contests in the United States (1908–1916) 

    Gerais, Reem
    Better babies contests were competitions held in state fairs throughout the US during the early twentieth century in which babies between the ages of 6 and 48 months were judged for their health. In 1908, social activist ...
  • Better Babies Contests in the United States (1908–1916) 

    Gerais, Reem
    Better babies contests were competitions held in state fairs throughout the US during the early twentieth century in which babies between the ages of 6 and 48 months were judged for their health. In 1908, social activist ...
  • Bicoid 

    Resnik, Jack (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-08-13)
    Bicoid is the protein product of a maternal-effect gene unique to flies of the genus Drosophila . In 1988 Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard identified bicoid as the first known morphogen . A morphogen is a molecule that ...
  • Biological Clocks and the Formation of Human Tooth Enamel 

    MacCord, Kate (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-03-18)
    Tooth enamel contains relics of its formation process, in the form of microstructures, which indicate the incremental way in which it forms. These microstructures, called cross-striations and striae of Retzius, develop as ...
  • The Birth Control Pill 

    Raup, Christina (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-08)
    The birth control pill, more commonly known as "the pill" is a form of contraception taken daily in pill form and consisting of synthetic hormones formulated to prevent ovulation, fertilization, and implantation of a ...
  • Birth Defects Caused by Agent Orange 

    King, Jesse (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2013-03-18)
    During the Vietnamese War between 1961 and 1971 the United States armed forces engaged in a massive defoliation and crop destruction campaign named Operation Ranch Hand. Agent Orange, an herbicide so named because of the ...
  • The Carapacial Ridge of Turtles 

    Caniglia, Guido (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-25)
    Two main elements characterize the skeletal morphology of turtles: the carapace and the plastron. For a turtle, the carapacial ridge begins in the embryo as a bulge posterior to the limbs but on both sides of the body. ...
  • Carnegie Stages 

    Wellner, Karen (Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences. Center for Biology and Society. Embryo Project Encyclopedia., 2012-05-10)
    Historically the exact age of human embryo specimens has long perplexed embryologists. With the menstrual history of the mother often unknown or not exact, and the premenstrual and postmenstrual phases varying considerably ...